Title: Chemically strengthened glasses: principles and applications
Abstract:Alkali-containing glasses can be readily strengthened by immersion in a molten salt bath at temperatures lower than the strain point. Surface compression develops due to the stuffing of larger-sized invading ions such as K+ replacing the smaller host alkali ions such as Na+ in the glass network. Strengthening results from the surface compression which has to be overcome by an applied tension for any fracture to initiate. This presentation discusses the essentials of the ion exchange interdiffusion kinetics, surface compression generation, and its "greater-than-expected" relaxation. Some specific applications such as those for pharmaceutical glass packaging, aircraft windshields, cell phones, and glass armor are briefly described.
Arun K. Varshneya, Professor of Glass Science & Engineering, Emeritus, Alfred University and President, Saxon Glass Technology, Inc., Alfred NY